Susan A. Carroll

Portrait of  Susan A. Carroll

  • Title
    Staff Scientist
  • Email
  • Phone
    (925) 423-5694
  • Organization
    Not Available

Research Interests

Susan is the Lab’s Postdoc Director and a geochemist.  For over 30 years she has applied her chemical expertise to radioactive waste disposal, environmental restoration, climate change and materials stability.  Her research focuses on coupling laboratory and field studies with state-of-the-art analysis and modeling to assess engineered systems.

Ph.D. Geochemistry, Northwestern University, 1989

B.S. Geology, University of Kansas, 1983


  1. Iyer, J., Lackey, G, Edvardsen, L., Bean, A., Carroll, S. A., Huerta, N., Smith, M. M., Torsaeter, M., Dilmore, R., Derasi, P. (2022) A review of well integrity based on field experience at carbon utilization and storage sites. International J. Greenhouse Gas Control,
  2. Rhino, K., Iyer, J., Carroll, S., Smith, M. (2020) Influence of effective stress on mechanical and chemical alteration processes at the cement-caprock interface.  International J. Greenhouse Gas Control,
  3. Chavez Panduro, E.A, Cordonnier, B., Gawel, K., Børve, I., Iyer, J., Carroll, S.A., Michels, L., Rogowska, M., McBeck, J.A., Sørensen, H.O., Walsh, S.D.C., Renard, F., Gibaud, A., Torsæter, M., Breiby, D.W. (2020) Real Time 3D Observations of Portland Cement Carbonation at CO2 Storage Conditions, Environmental Science and Technology,
  4. Iyer, J., Chen, X., Carroll, S.  (2019) Impact of chemical and mechanical processes on leakage from damaged wells in CO2 storage sites.  Environmental Science and Technology
  5. White, S., Carroll, S., Chu, S., Bacon, D., Pawar, R., Cumming, L., Hawkins, J., Kelley, M., Demirkanli, I., Middleton, R., Sminchak, J., Pasumarti, A. (2019). A risk-based approach to evaluating the area of review and leakage risks at CO2 storage sites. International J. Greenhouse Gas Control
  6. Buscheck, T.A, Mansoor, K., Yang, X., Wainwright, H. M., Carroll, S. A. (2019) Downhole Pressure and Chemical Monitoring for Leak Detection in Aquifers Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir, International J. Greenhouse Gas Control,
  7. Smith M. M., Hao Y., Spangler L. H., Lammers K., Carroll S. A. (2019) Validation of a reactive transport model for predicting changes in porosity and permeability in carbonate core samples, International J. Greenhouse Gas Control,
  8. Yang, X., Buscheck, T. A., Mansoor, K., Carroll, S. A. (2019) Assessment of Geophysical Monitoring Methods for Detection of Brine and CO2 Leakage in Drinking Aquifers, International J. Greenhouse Gas Control,
  9. Hao Y., Smith M. M., and Carroll S.A. (2019) Multiscale modeling of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution: from core to meter scale, International J. Greenhouse Gas Control,
  10. Mason H. E., Smith M. M., Carroll S. A. (2019) Calibration of NMR porosity to estimate permeability in carbonate reservoirs Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control,  
  11. Roy, P., Morris, J.P., Walsh, S.D.C., Iyer, J. Carroll, S. (2018) Effect of thermal stress on wellbore integrity during CO2 injection. International J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 77, 14-26,
  12. Iyer, J., Walsh, S. D. C, Hao, Y. Carroll, S. A. (2018) Assessmnet of two-phase flow on the chemical alteration and sealing of leakage pathways in cemented wellbores.  International Journal Greenhouse Gas Control, 69, 72-80, 
  13. Bacon, D., Keating, E., Carroll, S., Abbas, I., Mansoor, K., Bracken, W., Liange, Z., Greenberg, S. Application of the Aquifer Impact Model to Support Decisions at a CO2 Sequestration Site (2017) Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 7, 1020-1034,
  14. Carroll, S. A., Iyer, J., Walsh, S. D. C. (2017) Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs, Accounts in Chemical Research, 10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00094.
  15. Iyer, J., Walsh, S. D. C, Hao, Y. Carroll, S. A. (2017) Incorporating reaction-rate dependence in reaction-front models of wellbore-cement/carbonated-brine systems.  International Journal Greenhouse Gas Control
  16. Lammers, K.  Smith, M. M., Carroll, S. A. (2017) Muscovite dissolution kinetics as a function of pH at elevated temperature.  Chemical Geology,
  17. Smith, M., Hao, Y., Carroll, S (2017) Development and calibration of a reactive transport model for porosity and permeability changes in carbonate reservoirs, International Journal Greenhouse Gas Control
  18. Smith M., Dai, Z., Carroll, S. (2017) Illite dissolution kinetics from 100 to 280 °C and pH 3 to 9. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 209, 9-23,
  19. Walsh S. D. C., Smith M., Carroll S.A., Crandall D. (2016) Non-Invasive In-Situ Measurement of Proppant Pack Deformation, International J. Rock Mechanics And Mining Services, 87, 39-47.
  20. Keating, E., Bacon, D., Carroll, S., Mansoor, K., Sun, Y., Zheng, L., Harp, D., Dai, Z. (2016) Applicability of Aquifer Impact Models To Support Decisions At CO2 Sequestration Sites. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control, Doi: 10.1016/J.Ijggc.2016.07.001
  21. Trainor-Guitton W. J., Mansoor, K., Sun, Y., Carroll, S. A. (2016) Merits Of Pressure And Geochemical Data As Indicators of CO2/Brine Leakage Into A Heterogenous, Sedimentary Aquifer. Int. J. Greenh. Gas control, doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.002
  22. Buscheck, T. A., White, J. A., Carroll, S. A., Bielicki, J. M. and Aines, R. D. (2016) Managing geologic CO2 storage with pre-injection brine production: a strategy evaluated with a model of CO2 injection at Snøhvit, Energy & Environmental Science, DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03648h
  23. Carroll, S. A., Carey, J. W., Dzombak, D., Huerta, N. J., Li, L., Richards, T., Um, W., Walsh, S.D.C., Zhang, L.  (2016) Review:  Role of Chemistry, Mechanics, And Transport On Well Integrity In Co2 Storage Environments.  Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control, 49, 149-160.
  24. Smith M.M, Carroll S.A. (2016) Chlorite Dissolution Kinetics At Ph 3-10 And Temperature To 275 C, Chemical Geology, 421, 55-64.
  25. Black, J. R., Carroll, S.A., Haese, R. R. (2015) Rates of Mineral Dissolution Under Co2 Storage Conditions. Chemical Geology, 399, 134-144.
  26. Smith M. and Carroll S. A. (2014) Experimental Determination of Chlorite Dissolution Kinetics At Geothermal Conditions, Proceedings, 39th Workshop On Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Ca.
  27. Carroll, S.A., Keating, E., Mansoor, K., Dai, Z., Sun, Y., Trainor-Guitton, W., Brown, C., Bacon, D. (2014) Key Factors For Assessing Potential Groundwater Impacts Due To Leakage From Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control, 153-168. Doi: 10.1016/J.Ijggc.2014.07.007
  28. Carroll S. A. And Stillman G. (2014) Assessment of Key Physical And Chemical Research Findings For The Use Of Co2 As A Heat Exchanging Fluid For Geothermal Energy Production, Proceedings, 39th Workshop On Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Ca.
  29. Mason, H.E., Walsh, S.D.C., Du Frane, W.L. Carroll. S.A. (2014) Determination of Diffusion Profiles In Altered Wellbore Cement Using Xrct Methods.  Environmental Science And Technology, 48 (12), Pp 7094–7100. Doi: 10.1021/Es4055737
  30. Walsh, S.D.C. Mason, H.E. Du Frane, W.L. Carroll. S.A. (2014) Mechanical and Hydraulic Coupling In Cement-Caprock Interfaces Exposed To Carbonated Brine.  Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control, Dx.Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Ijggc.2014.04.001
  31. Walsh, S.D.C. Mason, H.E. Du Frane, W.L. Carroll. S.A. (2014) Experimental calibration of a numerical model describing the alteration of cement/caprock interfaces by carbonated brine.  Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control,
  32. Rau G.H., Carroll S., A., Bourcier W. L., Singleton M. J., Smith M. M., Aines R. D. (2014) Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.  PNAS, 101, 10095-10100, doi:10.1073/pnas.1222358110
  33. Smith M.M., Walsh S.D.C., McNab W.W., and Carroll S.A. (2013) Experimental investigation of brine-CO2 flow through a natural fracture: Permeability increases with concurrent dissolution/reprecipitation reactions. Proceedings of the 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University.
  34. Hao, Y., Smith, M., Sholokhova, Y., and Carroll, S. (2013) CO2-induced dissolution of low permeability carbonates. Part 1: Numerical modeling of experiments, Advances in Water Resources,
  35. Smith, M. Sholokhova, Y., Hao, Y., and Carroll, S. (2013) CO2-induced dissolution of low permeability carbonates. Part 2: Characterization and experiments, Advances in Water Resources,
  36. Mason, H. E., Du Frane, W. L., Walsh, S. D. C., Dai, Z., Charnvanichborikarn, S., Carroll, S. A. (2013) Chemical and mechanical properties of wellbore cement altered by CO2-rich brine using a multi-analytical approach. Environmental Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1021/es3039906.
  37. Smith, M. ., Wolery, T. J., Carroll, S. A. (2013) Kinetics of chlorite dissolution at elevated temperatures and CO2 conditions. Chemical Geology (in revision).
  38. Carroll, S., Hao, Y., Smith, M., Sholokhova, Y. (2013), Development of scaling parameters to describe CO2-carbonate-rock interactions for the Marly Dolostone and Vuggy Limestone, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control,
  39. Walsh, S. D. C., Carroll, S. A. (2013) A fracture-scale model of immiscible fluid flow. Physical Review E, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.013012
  40. Carroll, S., McNab, W. Dai, Z.; Torres, S. (2012) Reactivity of Mt. Simon sandstone and the Eau Claire shale under CO2 storage conditions. Environmental Science and Technology,
  41. Karamalidis, A K. Torres, S. G., Hakala, A. J., Shao, H., Cantrell, K. J., Carroll, S. A. (2012) Trace Metal Source terms in carbon sequestration environments. Environmental Science and Technology, DOI: 10.1021/es304832
  42. Mason H. E., Harley, S. J., Maxwell, R. S., Carroll, S. A. (2012) Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy, Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 2806 – 2812; DOI: 10.1021/es203733c
  43. Smith, M., Sholokhova, Y., Hao Y., Carroll, S (2012) Evaporite Caprock Integrity: An experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure, Environmental Science and Technology,
  44. Sun Y., Tong, C., Trainor-Guitton W. J., Lu, C. Mansoor, K., Carroll, S. A. (2012) Global sampling for integrating physics-specific subsystems and quantifying uncertainties of CO2 geologic sequestration. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 12, 108-123
  45. Walsh, S. D. C.; Du Frane, W. L.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S. A., (2012) Permeability of welbore-cement fractures following degradation by carbonated brines. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, DOI: 10.1007/s00603-012-0336-9
  46. Smith, M., Wolery, T., and Carroll, S. (2011) Chlorite Kinetics and Impact on EGS-CO2. GCR Transactions, 35, 533-537
  47. Carroll, S. A., McNab, W., and Torres, S (2011) Experimental study of cement –sandstone/shale-brine-CO2 interactions. Geochemical Transactions, 12:9
  48. Mason, H. E., Maxwell R. S., Carroll, S. A. (2011) The formation of metastable aluminosilicates in the Al–Si–H2O system: Results from solution chemistry and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, Geochem. Cosmochem. Acta, 75, 6080-6093
  49. Wolery, T. J. and Carroll, S. A. (2010) CO2-rock interactions in EGS-CO2: New Zealand TVZ Geothermal Systems as a Natural Analog. GCR Transactions, 34, 730-736.
  50. Newmark, R. L., Friedmann, S. J., and Carroll, S. A. (2010) Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Environmental Management 45:651-661


  1. Carroll, S., Hao, Y, Aines, R (2009) Geochemical detection of CO2 in dilute aquifers. Geochemical Transactions 10:4
  2. Houston, J., Maxwell, R. S., Carroll, S. (2009) Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy, Geochemical Transactions 10:1
  3. Houston, J., Herberg, J,, Maxwell, R. S., Carroll, S. (2008) Association of dissolved aluminum with silica: Connecting molecular structure to surface reactivity using NMR. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 3326-2227
  4. Carroll, S., Roberts, S., Criscenti, L. J., O'Day, P. A. (2008) Suraface Complexation Model for Strontium Sorption to Amorphous Silica and Goethite. Geochemical Transactions, 9:2
  5. Dixit S., and Carroll S. A. (2007). Effect of Solution Saturation State and Temperature on Diopside Dissolution. Geochemical Transactions, 8:3
  6. Rard J., Staggs K. J., Day S. D., and Carroll S. A. (2006) Boiling Temperature and Reversed Deliquescence Relative Humidity Measurements for Mineral Assemblages in the NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O System, J. Solution Chemistry, 35, 1187-1215
  7. Alai, M, Sutton, M, and Carroll, S. (2005) Evaporative Evolution of Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring, Geochemical Transactions 6, 31-45
  8. Carroll, S. A., Craig, L., and Wolery, T. (2005) Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3 and NaCl-KNO3 salt mixtures from 90 to 120°C. Geochemical Transactions, 6, 19-30
  9. Carroll, S. A. and Knauss, K. G. (2005) Dependence of labradorite dissolution kinetics on CO2(aq), Al(aq), and temperature. Chemical Geology, 217, 213-225
  10. O'Day P. A., Rivera N., Root R., Carroll S. A. (2004) X-ray-absorption spectroscopic study of iron reference compounds for the analysis of natural sediments. American Mineralogist, 89, 572-585.
  11. Steefel C. I., Carroll S. A., Zhao P., Roberts S. (2003) Cesium migration in Hanford sediment: A multi-site cation exchange model based on laboratory transport experiments. J. Contaminant Hydrology, 67, 219-246
  12. Carroll S. A., O'Day P. A., Esser B. and Randall, S. (2002) Speciation and fate of trace metals in estuarine sediments under reduced and oxidized conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station (USA). Geochemical Transactions, 3, 81-101
  13. Carroll S. A., Maxwell R. S., Bourcier W., Martin S., Hulsey S. (2002) Evaluation of silica-water surface chemistry using NMR spectroscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 913-926
  14. O'Day P. A., Carroll S. A., Randall, S., Martinelli R., Anderson S. L., Jelinski J., Knezovich J. P. (2001) Metal speciation and bioavailability in contaminated sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 3665-3673
  15. O'Day P. A., Newville M, Neuhoff, PS, Sahai N., Carroll S. A. (2000) X-ray absorption spectroscopy of strontium (II) coordination 1. Static and thermal disorder in crystalline, hydrated, and precipitated solids and in aqueous solution. J. Colloid and Interface Science, 222, 184-197
  16. Sahai N., Carroll S. A., Roberts S., O'Day P. A., (2000) X-ray absorption spectroscopy of strontium (II) coordination. II. Sorption and precipitation at kaolinite, amorphous silica, and goethite surfaces. J. Colloid and Interface Science, 222, 198-212


  1. O'Day P. A., Carroll S. A., and Waychunas G. A. (1998) Rock-water interactions controlling Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in surface waters and sediments, U. S. Tri-State mining district. 1. Molecular identification using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 943-955
  2. Carroll S. A., O'Day P. A., and Piechowski M. (1998) Rock-water interactions controlling Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in surface waters and sediments, U. S. Tri-State mining district. 2. Geochemical Interpretation. Environmental Science and Technology 32, 956-965
  3. Carroll S. A., Mroczek E., Alai, M., Ebert M. (1998) Amorphous silica precipitation (60° to 120°C): Comparison of laboratory and field rates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 1379-1396
  4. Brady P. V. and Carroll S. A., (1994). Direct effects of CO2 and temperature on silicate weathering: Possible implications for climate control. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 1853-1856
  5. Carroll S. A. (1993). Precipitation of Nd-Ca carbonate solid solution at 25°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 3383-3393
  6. Carroll S. A., Bruno J., Petit J. C., and Dran J. C., (1992). Interactions of U(VI), Nd(III), and Th(IV) at the calcite-solution Interface. Radiochimica Acta, 58/59, 245-252
  7. Carroll S. A. and Bruno J., (1991). Mineral-solution interaction in the U(VI)-CO2-H2O system. Radiochimica Acta 52/53, 187-193.
  8. Carroll S. A. and Walther J. V., (1990). Kaolinite dissolution at 25, 60, and 80°C. American Journal of Science, 290, 797-810
  9. Carroll-Webb S. A. and Walther J. V., (1988) A surface complex reaction model of the pH dependence of corundum and kaolinite dissolution rates.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 2609-2624